Monthly Archives: March 2014

Weave Samples: Irregular Broken Twill

An irregular twill has floats of varying lengths, breaking up the twill pattern. In a broken twill the threading is also displaced, causing a break in the pattern.

IrregularBrokenTwill_Front

Irregular broken twill

IrregularBrokenTwill_Back

The reverse of the irregular broken twill above


Weaving Draft

Irregular-Broken-Twill

Irregular broken twill draft (redrafted from the weaving draft provided by Carolyn Priest-Dorman [1])


When and where can this textile be found?

  • Late 15th century chasuble in the Victoria & Albert Museum (item no. 1478A-1899) [1].

[1] An Irregular Fustian Weave by Carolyn Priest-Dorman (in Medieval Textiles 23 or here)

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Weave Sample: 2/2 Broken Lozenge Twill

22BrokenLozengeTwill

2/2 broken lozenge twill

The number of warp and weft threads between reversals can vary. Here is another example of a broken lozenge twill.

Untitled

2/2 broken lozenge twill


Weaving Draft

2-2-Broken-Lozange-Twill

2/2 broken lozenge twill draft


When and where can this textile be found?

  • 1st century Denmark in wool [4].
  • lst-2nd century (Roman Era) Scotland in wool [7].
  • Mid 3rd – early/mid 4th century Denmark [8].
  • Commonly associated with Norse and Anglo-Saxon textiles.
  • 5th – 7th century England (Early Anglo-Saxon) in linen and wool [1].
  • Late 5th – early 6th century (Merovingian) Belgium [6].
  • Late 6th – early 7th century (Merovingian) Belgium [5].
  • 8th century Germany [2].
  • Late 9th – 10th century England in wool [10].
  • 10th – 12th century Ireland in wool [9].
  • Common throughout the 5th through 11th centuries in Northern Europe, usually in wool though occasionally in linen.
  • Late 9th to mid-11th century England in wool [2].
  • Late 10th to mid-11th century England in a plant fibre (linen?) [2].
  • 9th – 13th century Netherlands in wool [3].

[1] Costume in the Early Anglo-Saxon Cemetery at Saltwood, Kent by Penelope Walton Rogers
[2] Textiles, Cordage and Raw Fibre from 16–22 Coppergate by Penelope Walton
[3] Two Early Medieval Caps from the Dwelling Mounds Rasquert and Leens in Groningen Province, the Netherlands by Hanna Zimmerman (in NESAT X)
[4] The poor people from Lønne Hede- Presentation of first century-graves with preserved textiles by Ida Demant (in NESAT IX) (supplemented with additional photos from the Nymindegab Museum facebook page on the finds)
[5] Textiles found in a Merovingian Woman’s Grave at Beerlegem, Belgium by Chris Verhecken-Lammens, Marc Rogge, and Antoine De Moor (in NESAT VIII)
[6] Textile Pseudomorphs from a Merovingian Burial Ground at Harmignies, Belgium by Lisa Vanhaeke and Chris Verhecken-Lammens (in NESAT VII)
[7] Early Textiles Found In Scotland by Audrey S. Henshall
[8] An Iron-Age Cloak with Tabletwoven Borders: a New Interpretation of the Method of Production by Lise Raeder Knudsen (in NESAT VI)
[9] Aspects of the wool textiles from Viking Age Dublin by Frances Pritchard (in NESAT IV)
[10] Late Saxon Textiles from the City of London by Frances Pritchard

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Weave Sample: 2/2 Broken Chevron Twill

Chevron twill is produced when the threading of the warp is changed, which reverses the direction of the twill diagonal. This creates a horizontal zig-zag effect. In a broken chevron twill, the threading is also displaced at the reversal points, causing a break in the chevron pattern.

22BrokenChevronTwill

2/2 broken chevron twill


Weaving Draft

2-2-Broken-Chevron-Twill

2/2 broken chevron twill draft


When and where can this textile be found?

  • 1st century Denmark in wool [2].
  • Mid-3rd century (Roman Era) Scotland in wool [3].
  • Northern Europe from the 8th century until the 12th century.
  • 8th century Germany [1].
  • Late 9th – 10th century in England in wool [1] [4].
  • Mid-late 10th century in a plant fibre (linen? nettle?) [1].

[1] Textiles, Cordage and Raw Fibre from 16–22 Coppergate by Penelope Walton
[2] The poor people from Lønne Hede- Presentation of first century-graves with preserved textiles by Ida Demant (in NESAT IX) (supplemented with additional photos from the Nymindegab Museum facebook page on the finds)
[3] Early Textiles Found In Scotland by Audrey S. Henshall
[4] Late Saxon Textiles from the City of London by Frances Pritchard

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Weave Sample: 3/1 and 1/3 Lozenge Twills

31LozengeTwill

3/1 lozenge twill

13LozengeTwill

1/3 lozenge twill


Weaving Draft

3-1-Lozenge-Twill

3/1 lozenge twill draft


When and where can this textile be found?

  • 3/1 lozenge twill is only occasionally found, such
    as in a 13th century linen mitre.

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Weave Sample: 3/1 and 1/3 Chevron Twill

31ChevronTwill

3/1 chevron twill

13ChevronTwill

1/3 chevron twill


Weaving Draft

3-1-Chevron-Twill

3/1 chevron twill draft


When and where can this textile be found?

  • Woolen 3/1 chevron twill textiles have been found in 6th or early 7th century France.

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Weave Sample: 2/2 Lozenge Twill

Lozenge twill is produced when the treadling direction is reversed as well as the warp threading. This produces alternate reversals in the twill direction and created diamond patterns in the textile.

22LozengeTwill

2/2 lozenge twill


Weaving Draft

2-2-Lozenge-Twill

2/2 lozenge twill draft


When and where can this textile be found?

  • Linen textiles in the Roman West and Eastern Mediterranean in the 1st through 4th centuries.
  • 8th century Germany [1].
  • 10th – 12th century Ireland in wool [2].
  • Linen household textiles of the 15th and 16th century.

[1] Textiles, Cordage and Raw Fibre from 16–22 Coppergate by Penelope Walton
[2] Aspects of the wool textiles from Viking Age Dublin by Frances Pritchard (in NESAT IV)

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Weave Sample: 2/2 Chevron Twill

Chevron twill is produced when the threading of the warp is changed, which reverses the direction of the twill diagonal. This creates a horizontal zig-zag effect.  This can also be called a point chevron twill, as there is no break in the reversals.

22ChevronTwill

2/2 chevron twill


Weaving Draft

2-2-Chevron-Twill

2/2 chevron twill draft


When and where can this textile be found?

  • Linen textiles in the Roman West and Eastern Mediterranean in the 1st through 4th centuries.
  • Late 5th – early 6th century (Merovingian) Belgium [2].
  • Northern Europe from the 8th century until the 12th century.
  • Late 9th century England in wool [1].
  • 10th – 12th century Russia in wool [3].
  • Linen household textiles of the 15th and 16th century

[1] Textiles, Cordage and Raw Fibre from 16–22 Coppergate by Penelope Walton
[2] Textile Pseudomorphs from a Merovingian Burial Ground at Harmignies, Belgium by Lisa Vanhaeke and Chris Verhecken-Lammens (in NESAT VII)
[3] New Finds of Medieval Textiles in the North of Novgorod Land by Natalia Khvoschchinskaja (in NESAT IV)

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Weave Samples: Rayed Cloth

Since I was already set up for tabbies and twills, I wove a few ‘rayed cloths’ as well.

Rayed cloths are tabby-woven with decorative bands of weft-faced extended tabby and/or 2/2 twill. In my samples the bands should be beaten much harder to make them more weft-faced, but the cotton didn’t have the give I would have been able to get with wool or silk.

Ray1

Tabby with extended tabby bands

Ray2

Tabby with twill bands

Ray3

Tabby with extended tabby and twill bands

When and where can this textile be found?

  • 13th or 14th century England in wool (extended tabby bands) [1]
  • Northern European woolen textiles of the 13th – 15th centuries, with bands in silk or wool. [2]

[1] Textiles, Cordage and Raw Fibre from 16–22 Coppergate by Penelope Walton
[2] Textiles and Clothing, C.1150-c.1450 by Elisabeth Crowfoot, Frances Pritchard, Kay Staniland

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Weave Sample: 3/1 Ribbed Twill

A ribbed twill (rippenkoper) is produced when rows of a weft-faced twill are alternated with rows of a warp-faced twill. This difference produces a ribbed effect.

31Twill_Ribbed

3/1 ribbed twill


Weaving Draft

3-1-Ribbed-Twill

3/1 ribbed twill draft


When and where can this textile be found?

  • 2nd century (Roman Era) Egypt [1]

[1] A Matter of Material: Changes in Textiles from Roman Sites in Egypt’s Eastern Desert by Lise Bender Jorgensen (in An Tard)

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Weave Sample: 3/1 Twill

In 3/1 twill the weft goes under three warp threads, then over one, creating a very warp-faced twill. 1/3 twill is the reverse.

31Twill

3/1 twill

13Twill

1/3 twill


Weaving Draft

3-1-Twill

3/1 twill draft


When and where can this textile be found?

  • Late 16th century Ireland (Dublin) in silk [1].

[1] ‘The Apparel oft Proclaims the Man’: Late Sixteenth- and Early Seventeenth-Century Textiles from Bridge Street Upper, Dublin by Elizabeth Wincott Beckett (in NESAT VII)

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