Posts Tagged With: tabby

Weave Samples: Rayed Cloth

Since I was already set up for tabbies and twills, I wove a few ‘rayed cloths’ as well.

Rayed cloths are tabby-woven with decorative bands of weft-faced extended tabby and/or 2/2 twill. In my samples the bands should be beaten much harder to make them more weft-faced, but the cotton didn’t have the give I would have been able to get with wool or silk.

Ray1

Tabby with extended tabby bands

Ray2

Tabby with twill bands

Ray3

Tabby with extended tabby and twill bands

When and where can this textile be found?

  • 13th or 14th century England in wool (extended tabby bands) [1]
  • Northern European woolen textiles of the 13th – 15th centuries, with bands in silk or wool. [2]

[1] Textiles, Cordage and Raw Fibre from 16–22 Coppergate by Penelope Walton
[2] Textiles and Clothing, C.1150-c.1450 by Elisabeth Crowfoot, Frances Pritchard, Kay Staniland

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Weave Sample: Basketweave

This weave structure is a simple variation on tabby weave, achieved by pairing the warp and the weft.

Tabby_Basket

Basket weave


Weaving Draft

Basketweave

Basket weave draft


When and where can this textile be found?

  • 1st century Egypt in linen and cotton [1].
  • 1st – 4th century Western Roman Empire in wool and linen [3].
  • 1st – 4th century Eastern Mediterranean (Roman Empire) [4].
  • Late 2nd – early 3rd century (Roman Era) France [5].
  • 4th century (Late Roman) England in linen (or possibly hemp) [2].

[1] Sails, Sacking and Packing: Textiles from the First Century Rubbish Dump at Berenike, Egypt by Felicity C. Wild  (in Purpureae Vestes)
[2] Textiles and Leather by Penelope Walton Rogers (in The late Roman cemetery at Lankhills, Winchester: Excavations 2000-2005)
[3] The Romans in the West, 600 BC – AD 400 by John Peter Wild (in The Cambridge History of Western Textiles)
[4] The Eastern Mediterranean, 323 BC – AD 350 by John Peter Wild (in The Cambridge History of Western Textiles)
[5] Gallo-Roman Period Archaeological Textiles found in France by Sophie Desrosiers and Alexandra Lorquin (in NESAT VI)

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Weave Sample: Extended Tabby

This weave structure is a simple variation on tabby weave, achieved by pairing the warp or the weft.

Tabby_Extended

Extended tabby


Weaving Draft

Half-Basket

Extended tabby draft


When and where can this textile be found?

  • 1st – 4th century Western Roman Empire in wool and linen [3].
  • 1st – 4th century Eastern Mediterranean (Roman Empire) [4].
  • 2nd century (Roman Era) France in wool [5].
  • 4th century (Late Roman) England in linen (or possibly hemp) [1].
  • 10th or 11th century Iceland in wool [2].

[1] Textiles and Leather by Penelope Walton Rogers (in The late Roman cemetery at Lankhills, Winchester: Excavations 2000-2005)
[2] The Textile Collection from the 1988 Bessastaðir Excavation by Michèle Hayeur Smith (in Bessastaðarannsókn II Kirkjugarður og miðaldaminjar, uppgraftarsvæði 12-15)
[3] The Romans in the West, 600 BC – AD 400 by John Peter Wild (in The Cambridge History of Western Textiles)
[4] The Eastern Mediterranean, 323 BC – AD 350 by John Peter Wild (in The Cambridge History of Western Textiles)
[5] Gallo-Roman Period Archaeological Textiles found in France by Sophie Desrosiers and Alexandra Lorquin (in NESAT VI)

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Weave Samples: Tabby

The first sample is tabby, also known as plainweave.  This is your basic one over one under weave.  Tabby is the simplest weave structure, and can be found almost universally throughout history in various fibres.

Tabby_Plain

Tabby (plain weave)


Weaving Draft

Tabby

Tabby (plain weave) draft


When and where can this textile be found?

  • 1st century Egypt in linen, cotton, and goat hair [4].
  • 1st century Denmark in wool [12].
  • 1st century England in wool [20].
  • 1st – 4th century Western Roman Empire in linen and wool [20].
  • 1st – 4th century Eastern Mediterranean (Roman Empire) in linen [21].
  • 1st – 11th century Lithuania [7].
  • 2nd century (Roman Era) Czech Republic in a plant fibre (linen?) [10].
  • Second half of the 2nd century (Roman Era) Scotland in wool [27].
  • 3rd – 4th century Denmark  (likely wool) [6].
  • 3rd – 4th century Denmark in wool [33].
  • 3rd -5th century (Roman Era) France [28].
  • 5th – 7th century England (Early Anglo-Saxon) in linen and wool [1].
  • 5th – 7th century Switzerland in wool and linen [18].
  • Late 5th – mid 7th century (Merovingian) Belgium [22].
  • Late 6th century (Merovingian) France in plant fibre (linen? hemp?) [8].
  • 6th – 7th century (Merovingian) France in wool and silk [9].
  • Late 6th – early 7th century (Merovingian) Belgium in animal fibre (horse? goat?) [17]
  • 6th – 8th century Denmark [29].
  • 9th – early 10th century Pomerania in silk [37].
  • Late 9th – 10th century England in silk [36].
  • Late 9th – 12th century England in wool [36].
  • Late 9th to 14th century England in linen and wool [2].
  • Late 10th – 12th century England in vegetable fibre (linen?) [36].
  • Late 11th – 12th century in England in goat hair [36].
  • 10th – 12th century Russia in linen and wool [35].
  • Mid-10th – 11th century Russia in linen [11].
  • Late 10th century Prague in linen and silk [19].
  • Late 10th to mid-11th century England in silk [2].
  • 11th century Denmark in linen [34].
  • 11th – early 12th century Poland in flax or hemp [31].
  • 11th-13th century Ireland in wool [32].
  • 12th century Norway in wool, hair, flax, and silk [30].
  • 12th – mid-14th century Sweden [16].
  • 12th – 14th century Spain in silk [26].
  • 12th – 16th century Iceland [25].
  • 13th century Scotland in linen [27].
  • 13th century Pomerania in wool and silk [37].
  • 13th – 14th century Ireland in a vegetable fibre (linen?) [32].
  • Late 13th to early 14th century in England in wool [3].
  • 14th century in England in silk [3].
  • 14th century In England in silk [5].
  • 14th century Norway in linen [13].
  • 14th century Denmark in wool [14].
  • 14th century – 15th century Poland in flax or hemp [31].
  • 15th century in England in wool [3].
  • 16th century Netherlands in wool [23].
  • Late 16th century England in silk [15].
  • Late 16th century Netherlands in silk [23].
  • Late 16th century Ireland (Dublin) in silk, wool, half-silk (silk/wool or silk/linen), linsey-wolsey (animal/vegetable), and wool/cotton [24].

[1] Costume in the Early Anglo-Saxon Cemetery at Saltwood, Kent by Penelope Walton Rogers
[2] Textiles, Cordage and Raw Fibre from 16–22 Coppergate by Penelope Walton Rogers
[3] Dress, dress accessories and personal ornament Textile and yarn by Penelope Walton Rogers (in Craft, Industry and Everyday Life: Finds from Medieval York)
[4] Sails, Sacking and Packing: Textiles from the First Century Rubbish Dump at Berenike, Egypt by Felicity C. Wild  (in Purpureae Vestes)
[5] Silks from Kwidzyn Cathedral, Poland by Malgorzata Grupa (in NESAT X)
[6] Evidence of War and Worship: Textiles in Roman Iron Age Weapon Deposits by Susan Moller-Wiering (in NESAT X)
[7] Textiles from the 3rd- 12th century AD Cremation Graves Found in Lithuania by Elvyra Peceliunaite-Bažiene (in NESAT X)
[8] Garments for a Queen by Antoinette Rast-Eicher (in NESAT X)
[9] Luxurious Merovingian Textiles Excavated from Burials in the Saint Denis Basilica, France in the 6th-7th Century by Sophie Desrosiers and Antoinette Rast-Eicher (Textile Society of America)
[10] Textile Remains on a Roman Bronze Vessel from Repov (Czech Republic) by Kristyna Urbanova and Helena Brezinova (in NESAT X)
[11] Studies of the Textiles from the 2006 Excavation in Pskov by Elena S. Zubkova, Olga V Orfinskaya, and Kirill A. Mikhailov (in NESAT X)
[12] The poor people from Lønne Hede- Presentation of first century-graves with preserved textiles by Ida Demant (in NESAT IX)
[13] Medieval Clothing in Uvdal, Norway by Marianne Vedeler (in NESAT IX)
[14] A heap of forgotten textiles from the 14th century Danish fortress, Boringholm by Maj Ringgaard and Else Østergård (in NESAT IX)
[15] A glimpse into Shakespeare’s world: late sixteenth-century textiles from the Rose playhouse, London by Frances Pritchard (in NESAT IX)
[16] Textile appearance and visual impression – Craft knowledge applied to archaeological textiles by Lena Hammarlund, Kathrine Vestergaard Pedersen (in NESAT IX)
[17] Textiles found in a Merovingian Woman’s Grave at Beerlegem, Belgium by Chris Verhecken-Lammens, Marc Rogge, and Antoine De Moor (in NESAT VIII)
[18] Early Medieval Costume in Switzerland by Antoinette Rast-Eicher (in NESAT VIII)
[19] The oldest textile items from the reliquary tomb of St. Ludmila by Milena Braverrnanova (in NESAT VIII)
[20] The Romans in the West, 600 BC – AD 400 by John Peter Wild (in The Cambridge History of Western Textiles)
[21] The Eastern Mediterranean, 323 BC – AD 350 by John Peter Wild (in The Cambridge History of Western Textiles)
[22] Textile Pseudomorphs from a Merovingian Burial Ground at Harmignies, Belgium by Lisa Vanhaeke and Chris Verhecken-Lammens (in NESAT VII)
[23] Sixteenth-Century Textiles from Two Sites in Groningen, The Netherlands by Hanna Zimmerman (in NESAT VII)
[24] ‘The Apparel oft Proclaims the Man’: Late Sixteenth- and Early Seventeenth-Century Textiles from Bridge Street Upper, Dublin by Elizabeth Wincott Beckett (in NESAT VII)
[25] The Textile Collection from the 1988 Bessastaðir Excavation by Michèle Hayeur Smith (in Bessastaðarannsókn II Kirkjugarður og miðaldaminjar, uppgraftarsvæði 12-15)
[26] Report on the Textiles from Burgos Cathedral in Patrimonio Nacional, Palacio Real Madrid, Spain by Camilla Luise Dahl, Marianne Vedeler, and Concha Herrero Carretero
[27] Early Textiles Found In Scotland by Audrey S. Henshall
[28] Gallo-Roman Period Archaeological Textiles found in France by Sophie Desrosiers and Alexandra Lorquin (in NESAT VI)
[29] The Textiles from Nørre Sandegård Vest by Ulla Mannering (in NESAT VI)
[30] 12th Century Twills from Bergen, Norway by Ellen Schjølberg (in NESAT VI)
[31] Polish Textiles from Coin Hoards of the 10th – 17th Centuries by Marta Pytlewicz (in NESAT VI)
[32] Medieval Textiles from Waterford City by Elizabeth Wincott Heckett (in NESAT V)
[33] Three Danish graves with textiles from the 3rd-4th centuries AD by Anne Hedeager Krag (in NESAT IV)
[34] An 11th century linen shirt from Viborg Søndersø, Denmark by Mytte Fentz (in NESAT IV)
[35] New Finds of Medieval Textiles in the North of Novgorod Land by Natalia Khvoschchinskaja (in NESAT IV)
[36] Late Saxon Textiles from the City of London by Frances Pritchard
[37] Fabrics in Medieval Dress in Pomerania by Ann Rybarczyk

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Underdress Fabric

The underdress fabric is cut and ready to sew. It softened up a bit more with my poor attempt at mangling.
I’ll be sewing the dress with the same linen thread I used to weave it, waxed with beeswax.

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Weaving With Linen: What I’ve Learned

The linen is off the loom and finished.  Final measurements, 9 yards at 25 inches wide.

Unfinished_Linen

Before finishing

Finished_Linen

After finishing (but not ironed)

This project is the first time I had done any weaving with linen.  For those of you that warned me it would be a different experience, boy were you right!

  • Sizing really helps.  I haven’t had the fraying issues I expected.  In fact, so far my only broken warp threads have been caused by teeth (see photo below).
  • Linen is inelastic.  Once stretched it will not go back to its original shape.  This made keeping tension difficult, especially due to my unusual, but not unexpected, stretching issues.  I found that leaving the lease sticks in helped even out the tension.  If I do another long linen yardage, I will order a second set of lease sticks and use all four instead of just the two I have.  I also ended up dangling weights on individual  threads that stretched.
Kitty Terror

No matter how hard you plan, something unexpected will occur.

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Linen Warped

The linen is warped!

So far, I’ve found the sizing made a tremendous difference. The string was much more manageable that it was unsized.

I have high hopes.

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Sizing the Linen Warp

Because of the troubles I had with the wool fraying more than expected I am very sure that I am going to have problems with the linen, which is notorious for it.  To help combat this, I am sizing the warp to increase it’s strength.

I haven’t been able to find any hard evidence of what sizing would have been used in period, I’ve opted to go with linseed.  My assumption is that if they had access to the flax fibre, they would probably also have access to the seeds.

After searching around on the internet it seems a common formula is eight parts water to one part seeds, heated until the mixture has a consistency between coffee cream and egg white.  After 30 minutes, I had what was closer to a very runny hair gel, and stopped there.

Sizing

The sizing mixture. The dark colour is from the brown flaxseeds in the bottom.

After straining I dipped my warp chains in the mixture.  Boy oh boy what a goopy mess!  I wrung them out as best I could and hung them up to dry.

Drying

The warp chains hanging to dry.

Once dry I will warp up the loom as usual, and weave using a temple to help even out the draw in.

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Resampling the Linen

After mostly winding my linen warp, I’m rethinking my plans to do a 2/2 twill.  I’m thinking this yarn might look better as plain weave.  Also, with the twill overdress, another twill might be a bit much.

I wound a smaller sample warp, and have been weaving up new samples to test the look of the tabby.

This sample uses the same #10 Belgian linen yarn at 25 epi.  I also did a sample at 30 epi, but it was too heavy – more like canvas

I really do prefer it, so my plans have changed again.

Linen (Finished)

Linen (Finished)

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