Posts Tagged With: weave structure sample book

Weave Sample: Weft-Faced Compound Twill

Usually referred to as samite (or sometimes samitum).

In this sample I tested several styles of samite. From the bottom up, we have:

  • Plain (unfigured) samite
  • Duochrome figured samite (1-2-2-1 weft order)
  • Duochrome figured samite (1-2-1-2 weft order)
  • Monochrome figured samite (1-2-2-1 weft order)
  • Monochrome figured samite (1-2-1-2 weft order)
Samite

Weft-Faced Compound Twill

When and where can this textile be found?

  • Roman-Era Egypt (1st century to mid-3rd century) in wool [1].
  • 9th – early 10th century Pomerania in silk [3].
  • Late 9th – 10th century England in silk [2].

[1] Taqueté and Damask from Mons Claudianus: A Discussion of Roman Looms for Patterned Textiles by Martin Ciszuk (in Purpureae Vestes)
[2] Late Saxon Textiles from the City of London by Frances Pritchard
[3] Fabrics in Medieval Dress in Pomerania by Ann Rybarczyk

 

Save

Save

Save

Categories: Research, Weaving | Tags: , , | Leave a comment

Weave Sample: Float Patterned Twill #1

This sample is based on a float-patterned twill found in Jorvik (no. 1336).  It is worked on a 2/1 base, but with a floating warp/weft* at every third passage. These floating wefts occur in two different arrangements, three picks of one and then three picks of the other.

* It is undetermined if this is actually a warp-float or a weft-float patterned textile.  Penelope Walton Rogers drafted this textile with weft-floats, pointing out that as a weft-float patterned twill the weave would require only four sheds, assuming that each shed is tied to a heddle rod.  If instead each thread was only tied to a single heddle rod, and multiple rods were lifted, then a warp-float textile becomes more likely, as there is no evidence of warp-weighted looms with five heddle rods.

Regardless, I’ve chosen to weave this with warp floats, for the convenience of threading four shafts instead of five.

WarpFloatJorvik1336

Float Patterned Twill (Jorvik 1336)


Weaving Draft

Jorvik1336

Float Patterned Twill (Jorvik 1336) draft


When and where can this textile be found?

  • 10th century (Anglo-Scandinavian) England in linen [1].

[1] Textiles, Cordage and Raw Fibre from 16-22 Coppergate by Penelope Walton

Categories: Research, Weaving | Tags: , , , | Leave a comment

Jorvik 1336 Towels

Towels based on a 10th century Anglo-Scandanavian float-patterned twill found in Jorvik (no. 1336).  It is worked on a 2/1 base, but with a floating warp/weft* at every third passage. These floating wefts occur in two different arrangements, three picks of one and then three picks of the other.

* It is undetermined if this is actually a warp-float or a weft-float patterned textile.  Penelope Walton Rogers drafted this textile with weft-floats, pointing out that as a weft-float patterned twill the weave would require only four sheds, assuming that each shed is tied to a heddle rod.  If instead each thread was only tied to a single heddle rod, and multiple rods were lifted, then a warp-float textile becomes more likely, as there is no evidence of warp-weighted looms with five heddle rods.

Regardless, I’ve chosen to weave this with warp floats, for the convenience of threading four shafts instead of five.

Jorvik 1336

The completed towels

Jorvik 1336

Front close up

Jorvik 1336

Back Close up

 

Yarn 8/2 unmercerized cotton
Draft Jorvik 1336
Sett 20 epi
Ends 440
Length 3.6 yds
Warp 1584 yards (7.5 ounces)
Weft 1039.5 yards (5 ounces)

 

 

Categories: Research, Weaving | Tags: , , , | Leave a comment

Weave Sample: Damask (5-shaft Satin)

Oh look, I’m weaving my samples out of order. This is damask on a 5-shaft satin, which is the most common type of damask from the 15th century onwards1.

Damask

5-shaft satin damask


[1] Pattern and Loom, by John Becker

Categories: Research, Weaving | Tags: , , | Leave a comment

Sampler Planning: Compound Harness Weaves

For the compound harness samples I’ll be doing things a bit differently.  Rather than keep the same sett the same for each weave, I will be using the sett that works best for the textile in question (or should I say, my best guess).  The fabrics just won’t look right if I use the same sett I used before.  And I’d really like the fabrics to look right, so people can get a better idea of what they are supposed to look like.  To start I will still be using the same 8/2 unmercerized cotton. It’s readily available and inexpensive enough I won’t feel terrible if it all goes haywire.

I’ll be using these samples as a way to learn how to use my drawloom, so I expect there will be a fair amount of trial and error.

First off, I need to pick a relatively simple pattern that I can re-use to show the differences in weave.  As there are multiple wefts, the concept of dividing the sample into halves using different weft colours doesn’t work.  My plan is to divide the sample into thirds, instead.  The first third will be two colours plainweave (to show the ground fabrics without figuring, the second will be figured but monochrome to shoe the contrast of the figuring, and the third will be figured and ducochrome showing the full effect.

I’ll use the same pattern for the first batch of samples, and the same thread, and that should hopefully better show the difference in the weave.

I’ve decided to use an all-over design from Il Burato (Paganino, c. 1527), which is probably for lace but it will work.  Looking at it, it appears that this repeat of the pattern is 17 high and 10 wide, which seems a good small repeat for a learning exercise.

Burato1

Planned design, from Il Burato (Paganino, c. 1527)

Categories: Research, Weaving | Tags: , , , , | Leave a comment

Weave Sample: 2/1 Lozenge Twill

Lozenge twill is produced when the treadling direction is reversed as well as the warp threading. This produced alternate reversals in the twill direction and created diamond patterns in the textile.

2-1-Lozenge-Twill

2/1 lozenge twill


Weaving Draft

2-1-Lozenge-Twill

2/1 lozenge twill draft


When and where can this textile be found?

  • Commonly associated with 10th century Birka (Sweden)
  • 10th – 12th century Ireland in wool [2].
  • English textiles from the 10th century until the 13th century
  • Late 11th – 12th century in England in wool [3].
  • 12th – mid-14th century Sweden [1].

[1] Textile appearance and visual impression – Craft knowledge applied to archaeological textiles by Lena Hammarlund, Kathrine Vestergaard Pedersen (in NESAT IX)
[2] Aspects of the wool textiles from Viking Age Dublin by Frances Pritchard (in NESAT IV)
[3] Late Saxon Textiles from the City of London by Frances Pritchard

Categories: Research, Weaving | Tags: , | Leave a comment

Weave Sample: 2/1 Chevron Twill

Chevron twill is produced when the threading of the warp is changed, which reverses the direction of the twill diagonal. This creates a horizontal zig-zag effect.

2-1-Chevron-Twill

2/1 chevron twill


Weaving Draft

2-1-Chevron-Twill

2/1 chevron twill draft


When and where can this textile be found?

  • 7th c. Anglo Saxon (Sutton Hoo)
  • In wool in 8th century Germany
  • Mid-late 10th century in linen [1].
  • 11th – 14th century Norway [2].

[1] Textiles, Cordage and Raw Fibre from 16–22 Coppergate by Penelope Walton
[2] Medieval Textiles from Trondheim: An Analysis of Function by Ruth Iren Oien (in NESAT X)

Categories: Research, Weaving | Tags: , | Leave a comment

Weave Sample: 2/1 Ribbed Twill

A ribbed twill is produced when rows of 2/1 twill are alternated with rows of 1/2 twill. The difference in warp-faced and weft-faced weave structures produced a ribbed effect.

21RibbedTwill

2/1 ribbed twill (rippenkoper)


Weaving Draft

2-1-Ribbed-Twill

2/1 ribbed twill draft


When and where can this textile be found?

  • 2nd century (Roman Era) Egypt [2]
  • 5th – 7th century Northern Europe
  • 5th – 7th century Switzerland in linen and wool [1] (assuming 2/1 based on other sources)
  • 7th century Scandinavia
  • 11th century Latvia
  • 12th century Norway in wool [3].

[1] Early Medieval Costume in Switzerland by Antoinette Rast-Eicher (in NESAT VIII)
[2] A Matter of Material: Changes in Textiles from Roman Sites in Egypt’s Eastern Desert by Lise Bender Jorgensen (in An Tard)
[3] 12th Century Twills from Bergen, Norway by Ellen Schjølberg (in NESAT VI)

Categories: Research, Weaving | Tags: , | Leave a comment

Weave Sample: 2/1 Twill

In twill weaves, the weft is staggered to the right or the left, creating a diagonal effect. In 2/1 twill the weft goes under two warp threads, then over one, creating a warp-faced twill.

21Twill

2/1 twill


Weaving Draft

2-1-Twill

2/1 twill draft


When and where can this textile be found?

  • 1st – 4th century Western Roman Empire in wool [12].
  • 1st – 4th century Eastern Mediterranean (Roman Empire) [13]
  • Mid-late 3rd century (Roman Era) Spain [11].
  • 1st century to mid-3rd century (Roman Era) Egypt (in wool?) [4]
  • 2nd century (Roman Era) Czech Republic [7].
  • British textiles of the 5th through 7th century (though rare)
  • 10th – 12th century Ireland in wool [19].
  • Mid-late 10th century England in a plant fibre (linen?) [1].
  • Late 10th century England in wool [20].
  • 11th century Lithuania [6].
  • 11th-13th century Ireland in wool [18].
  • 11th – 14th century England in wool [2].
  • 11th – 14th century Norway [5].
  • Late 11th – 12th century in England in goat hair [20].
  • Mid-12th century in Pomerania in wool [21].
  • 12th century Norway in wool [17].
  • 12th – 13th century England in wool [1].
  • 12th – mid-14th century Sweden [10].
  • Late 13th century Finland in wool [3].
  • 14th century Norway in wool [8].
  • 14th century Denmark in wool [9].
  • Mid-14th century Scotland in wool [16].
  • First half of the 16 century Netherlands in wool [14].
  • Late 16th century Netherlands in silk warp/wool weft (weft-faced 1/2 twill) [14].
  • Occasionally in 16th century England
  • Late 16th century Ireland (Dublin) in half-silk (silk/wool or silk/linen) [15].

[1] Textiles, Cordage and Raw Fibre from 16–22 Coppergate by Penelope Walton Rogers
[2] Dress, dress accessories and personal ornament Textile and yarn by Penelope Walton Rogers (in Craft, Industry and Everyday Life: Finds from Medieval York)
[3] Finnish shipwreck textiles from the 13th–18th centuries AD by Krista Vajanto
[4] Team Work on Roman Textiles: The Mons Claudianus Textile Project by Lise Bender Jørgensen (in Purpureae Vestes)
[5] Medieval Textiles from Trondheim: An Analysis of Function by Ruth Iren Oien (in NESAT X)
[6] Textiles from the 3rd- 12th century AD Cremation Graves Found in Lithuania by Elvyra Peceliunaite-Bažiene (in NESAT X)
[7] Textile Remains on a Roman Bronze Vessel from Repov (Czech Republic) by Kristyna Urbanova and Helena Brezinova (in NESAT X)
[8] Medieval Clothing in Uvdal, Norway by Marianne Vedeler (in NESAT IX)
[9] A heap of forgotten textiles from the 14th century Danish fortress, Boringholm by Maj Ringgaard and Else Østergård (in NESAT IX)
[10] Textile appearance and visual impression – Craft knowledge applied to archaeological textiles by Lena Hammarlund, Kathrine Vestergaard Pedersen (in NESAT IX)
[11] Late Roman Textiles in the North of Spain (“Las Ermitas”, Vitoria) by Carmen Alfaro Giner (in NESAT VIII)
[12] The Romans in the West, 600 BC – AD 400 by John Peter Wild (in The Cambridge History of Western Textiles)
[13] The Eastern Mediterranean, 323 BC – AD 350 by John Peter Wild (in The Cambridge History of Western Textiles)
[14] Sixteenth-Century Textiles from Two Sites in Groningen, The Netherlands by Hanna Zimmerman (in NESAT VII)
[15] ‘The Apparel oft Proclaims the Man’: Late Sixteenth- and Early Seventeenth-Century Textiles from Bridge Street Upper, Dublin by Elizabeth Wincott Beckett (in NESAT VII)
[16] Early Textiles Found In Scotland by Audrey S. Henshall
[17] 12th Century Twills from Bergen, Norway by Ellen Schjølberg (in NESAT VI)
[18] Medieval Textiles from Waterford City by Elizabeth Wincott Heckett (in NESAT V)
[19] Aspects of the wool textiles from Viking Age Dublin by Frances Pritchard (in NESAT IV)
[20] Late Saxon Textiles from the City of London by Frances Pritchard
[21] Fabrics in Medieval Dress in Pomerania by Ann Rybarczyk

Categories: Research, Weaving | Tags: , | Leave a comment

Weave Sample: Rosette Twill

Rosette twill is a variation on 2/2 lozenge twill with doubled warp threads at 1 and 4.

Rosette

Rosette twill


Weaving Draft

Rosette

Rosette twill draft


When and where can this textile be found?

  • 6th – 7th century Germany. [1]

[1] The continental Germans by Lise Bender Jørgensen (in The Cambridge History of Western Textiles)

Categories: Research, Weaving | Tags: , | Leave a comment

Blog at WordPress.com.