Posts Tagged With: 2/2 twill

Weaving for a Queen

I’ve been asked to do a small weaving project for our Queen for her step-down. I haven’t been asked to do any projects for royalty before, and it’s an exciting prospect.

This project is a front panel for an apron dress, appropriate for a 9th century Norsewoman in England.

Doing some digging, I found a draft from excavations in London dating to the late 9th/early 10th century for a wool broken lozenge twill with narrow reversals in the warp, and longer reversals in the weft. The original was undyed white sheep with 11 threads/cm in the warp, and 10 threads/cm. in the weft. I tried to find a yarn that would give me close to these results, but I’ve chosen to do it in ‘brown sheep’ and ‘white sheep’ to make the pattern stand out. This is woven out of some 2/8 Jaggerspun Heather I had set aside (edelweiss and brindle). While uncommon, textiles with contrasting warp/weft yarns have been found in Scandinavian (or Scandinavian-occupied) sited during this era. The extant textile had a reversal every 10 warp threads and every 41/33 weft picks. My weaving does the same.

Draft 2/2 broken lozenge twill
Sett 20 epi
Ends 390
Length 2.5 yds
Warp 975 yds (7 oz)
Weft 500.5 yds (3.6 oz)
Broken Lozenge Twill

Computer-generated drawdown

Untitled

Completed fabric

Once completed, I added a tabletwoven border using the warp as weft to one end to mimic the starting band on a warp weighted loom.

Tablet woven end

Tabletweaving

The selvedges didn’t turn out well on this piece. I had been futzing with a tubular selvedge that didn’t work, and the wool was very grabby. To reinforce the edges I did a small rolled hem along the selvedge instead, and then hemmed the bottom.

And here it is all finished.

After finishing, I ended up with a thread count of 10 threads/cm. in the warp, and 9 threads/cm. in the weft. So, pretty close to the original.

Panel

Full panel

Panel_detail

Detail showing tabletwoven top and brooch loops.

Categories: Research, Weaving | Tags: , , , , | 1 Comment

Weave Sample: 2/2 Broken Lozenge Twill

22BrokenLozengeTwill

2/2 broken lozenge twill

The number of warp and weft threads between reversals can vary. Here is another example of a broken lozenge twill.

Untitled

2/2 broken lozenge twill


Weaving Draft

2-2-Broken-Lozange-Twill

2/2 broken lozenge twill draft


When and where can this textile be found?

  • 1st century Denmark in wool [4].
  • lst-2nd century (Roman Era) Scotland in wool [7].
  • Mid 3rd – early/mid 4th century Denmark [8].
  • Commonly associated with Norse and Anglo-Saxon textiles.
  • 5th – 7th century England (Early Anglo-Saxon) in linen and wool [1].
  • Late 5th – early 6th century (Merovingian) Belgium [6].
  • Late 6th – early 7th century (Merovingian) Belgium [5].
  • 8th century Germany [2].
  • Late 9th – 10th century England in wool [10].
  • 10th – 12th century Ireland in wool [9].
  • Common throughout the 5th through 11th centuries in Northern Europe, usually in wool though occasionally in linen.
  • Late 9th to mid-11th century England in wool [2].
  • Late 10th to mid-11th century England in a plant fibre (linen?) [2].
  • 9th – 13th century Netherlands in wool [3].

[1] Costume in the Early Anglo-Saxon Cemetery at Saltwood, Kent by Penelope Walton Rogers
[2] Textiles, Cordage and Raw Fibre from 16–22 Coppergate by Penelope Walton
[3] Two Early Medieval Caps from the Dwelling Mounds Rasquert and Leens in Groningen Province, the Netherlands by Hanna Zimmerman (in NESAT X)
[4] The poor people from Lønne Hede- Presentation of first century-graves with preserved textiles by Ida Demant (in NESAT IX) (supplemented with additional photos from the Nymindegab Museum facebook page on the finds)
[5] Textiles found in a Merovingian Woman’s Grave at Beerlegem, Belgium by Chris Verhecken-Lammens, Marc Rogge, and Antoine De Moor (in NESAT VIII)
[6] Textile Pseudomorphs from a Merovingian Burial Ground at Harmignies, Belgium by Lisa Vanhaeke and Chris Verhecken-Lammens (in NESAT VII)
[7] Early Textiles Found In Scotland by Audrey S. Henshall
[8] An Iron-Age Cloak with Tabletwoven Borders: a New Interpretation of the Method of Production by Lise Raeder Knudsen (in NESAT VI)
[9] Aspects of the wool textiles from Viking Age Dublin by Frances Pritchard (in NESAT IV)
[10] Late Saxon Textiles from the City of London by Frances Pritchard

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Weave Sample: 2/2 Broken Chevron Twill

Chevron twill is produced when the threading of the warp is changed, which reverses the direction of the twill diagonal. This creates a horizontal zig-zag effect. In a broken chevron twill, the threading is also displaced at the reversal points, causing a break in the chevron pattern.

22BrokenChevronTwill

2/2 broken chevron twill


Weaving Draft

2-2-Broken-Chevron-Twill

2/2 broken chevron twill draft


When and where can this textile be found?

  • 1st century Denmark in wool [2].
  • Mid-3rd century (Roman Era) Scotland in wool [3].
  • Northern Europe from the 8th century until the 12th century.
  • 8th century Germany [1].
  • Late 9th – 10th century in England in wool [1] [4].
  • Mid-late 10th century in a plant fibre (linen? nettle?) [1].

[1] Textiles, Cordage and Raw Fibre from 16–22 Coppergate by Penelope Walton
[2] The poor people from Lønne Hede- Presentation of first century-graves with preserved textiles by Ida Demant (in NESAT IX) (supplemented with additional photos from the Nymindegab Museum facebook page on the finds)
[3] Early Textiles Found In Scotland by Audrey S. Henshall
[4] Late Saxon Textiles from the City of London by Frances Pritchard

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Weave Sample: 2/2 Lozenge Twill

Lozenge twill is produced when the treadling direction is reversed as well as the warp threading. This produces alternate reversals in the twill direction and created diamond patterns in the textile.

22LozengeTwill

2/2 lozenge twill


Weaving Draft

2-2-Lozenge-Twill

2/2 lozenge twill draft


When and where can this textile be found?

  • Linen textiles in the Roman West and Eastern Mediterranean in the 1st through 4th centuries.
  • 8th century Germany [1].
  • 10th – 12th century Ireland in wool [2].
  • Linen household textiles of the 15th and 16th century.

[1] Textiles, Cordage and Raw Fibre from 16–22 Coppergate by Penelope Walton
[2] Aspects of the wool textiles from Viking Age Dublin by Frances Pritchard (in NESAT IV)

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Weave Sample: 2/2 Chevron Twill

Chevron twill is produced when the threading of the warp is changed, which reverses the direction of the twill diagonal. This creates a horizontal zig-zag effect.  This can also be called a point chevron twill, as there is no break in the reversals.

22ChevronTwill

2/2 chevron twill


Weaving Draft

2-2-Chevron-Twill

2/2 chevron twill draft


When and where can this textile be found?

  • Linen textiles in the Roman West and Eastern Mediterranean in the 1st through 4th centuries.
  • Late 5th – early 6th century (Merovingian) Belgium [2].
  • Northern Europe from the 8th century until the 12th century.
  • Late 9th century England in wool [1].
  • 10th – 12th century Russia in wool [3].
  • Linen household textiles of the 15th and 16th century

[1] Textiles, Cordage and Raw Fibre from 16–22 Coppergate by Penelope Walton
[2] Textile Pseudomorphs from a Merovingian Burial Ground at Harmignies, Belgium by Lisa Vanhaeke and Chris Verhecken-Lammens (in NESAT VII)
[3] New Finds of Medieval Textiles in the North of Novgorod Land by Natalia Khvoschchinskaja (in NESAT IV)

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Weave Samples: Rayed Cloth

Since I was already set up for tabbies and twills, I wove a few ‘rayed cloths’ as well.

Rayed cloths are tabby-woven with decorative bands of weft-faced extended tabby and/or 2/2 twill. In my samples the bands should be beaten much harder to make them more weft-faced, but the cotton didn’t have the give I would have been able to get with wool or silk.

Ray1

Tabby with extended tabby bands

Ray2

Tabby with twill bands

Ray3

Tabby with extended tabby and twill bands

When and where can this textile be found?

  • 13th or 14th century England in wool (extended tabby bands) [1]
  • Northern European woolen textiles of the 13th – 15th centuries, with bands in silk or wool. [2]

[1] Textiles, Cordage and Raw Fibre from 16–22 Coppergate by Penelope Walton
[2] Textiles and Clothing, C.1150-c.1450 by Elisabeth Crowfoot, Frances Pritchard, Kay Staniland

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Weave Sample: 2/2 Broken Twill

Broken twill (kreuzkoper) is produced when the twill weave is reversed and broken every two threads.

22Twill_Broken

2/2 broken twill


Weaving Draft

2-2-Broken-Twill

2/2 broken twill draft


When and where can this textile be found?

  • 2/2 broken twill can be found occasionally from the 8th century through the 12th century in Northern Europe and Scandinavia, though it is never common. [1]
  • 6th – 8th century Denmark in linen [4].
  • 8th century Germany [2].
  • 10th century England in wool [5].
  • Mid-late 10th century in England in wool [2].
  • 11th century Finland in wool [3].

[1] The Continental Germans by Lise Bender Jørgensen (in The Cambridge History of Western Textiles)
[2] Textiles, Cordage and Raw Fibre from 16–22 Coppergate by Penelope Walton
[3] Some Finnish Archaeological Twill Weaves from the 11th to the 15th Century by Heini Kirjavainen and Jaana Riikonen (in NESAT IX)
[4] The Textiles from Nørre Sandegård Vest by Ulla Mannering (in NESAT VI)
[5] Late Saxon Textiles from the City of London by Frances Pritchard

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Weave Sample: 2/2 Twill

In twill weaves, the weft is staggered to the right or the left, creating a diagonal effect. In 2/2 twill the weft goes under two warp threads, then over two. This is also called a balanced twill, because the warp and weft floats are even.
22Twill

2/2 twill


Weaving Draft

2-2-Twill

2/2 twill draft


When and where can this textile be found?

  • 1st century Denmark in wool [13].
  • 1st century to mid-3rd century Egypt (Roman Era) (in wool?) [5]
  • 1st – 4th century Western Roman Empire in wool and linen [19].
  • 1st – 4th century (Roman Era) France [5].
  • 1st – 4th century Eastern Mediterranean (Roman Empire) [20].
  • 1st – 11th century Lithuania [10].
  • 2nd century (Roman Era) Poland in wool/linen (both fibres in same textile) [6].
  • 3rd – 4th century Denmark  (likely wool) [8].
  • 3rd – 4th century Denmark in wool [28].
  • 4th century Poland in wool [6].
  • Norway in mid-5th century to mid-6th century (wool?) [7].
  • 5th – 6th century Norway in wool [12].
  • 5th – 6th century Switzerland [18].
  • 5th – 7th century England (Early Anglo-Saxon) in linen and wool [3].
  • Late 5th – mid 6th century (Merovingian) Belgium [21].
  • 6th – 7th century (Merovingian) France in wool [11].
  • German textiles of the 5th through 9th century.1
  • Late 9th – mid-10th century England in linen [4].
  • Late 9th – 10th century England in wool [30].
  • Late 9th – mid-11th century England in wool [4].
  • 10th – 12th century Russia in wool [29].
  • 11th century Finland in wool [14].
  • Late 11th – early 12th century Pomerania in wool [31].
  • 11th-13th century Ireland in wool [27].
  • 11th – 14th century Norway [9].
  • 12th century Norway in wool [26].
  • 12th – mid-14th century Sweden [17].
  • 12th- 16th century Iceland [24].
  • 13th – 14th century England in wool [4].
  • Textiles from 14th century England.[2]
  • 14th century Denmark in wool [15].
  • 16th century Netherlands in wool [22].
  • Late 16th century England in wool [16].
  • Late 16th century Netherlands in silk warp/wool weft [22].
  • Late 16th century Ireland (Dublin) in wool [23].

[2] Textiles and Clothing, C.1150-c.1450 by Elisabeth Crowfoot, Frances Pritchard, and Kay Staniland
[3] Costume in the Early Anglo-Saxon Cemetery at Saltwood, Kent by Penelope Walton Rogers
[4] Textiles, Cordage and Raw Fibre from 16–22 Coppergate by Penelope Walton
[5] Team Work on Roman Textiles: The Mons Claudianus Textile Project by Lise Bender Jørgensen (in Purpureae Vestes)
[6] Reconstruction of Archaeological Textiles by Maria Cybulska (in NESAT X)
[7] Norwegian Peat Bog Textiles: Tegle and Helgeland Revisited by Sunniva Wilberg Halvorsen (in NESAT X)
[8] Evidence of War and Worship: Textiles in Roman Iron Age Weapon Deposits by Susan Moller-Wiering (in NESAT X)
[9] Medieval Textiles from Trondheim: An Analysis of Function by Ruth Iren Oien (in NESAT X)
[10] Textiles from the 3rd- 12th century AD Cremation Graves Found in Lithuania by Elvyra Peceliunaite-Bažiene (in NESAT X)
[11] Luxurious Merovingian Textiles Excavated from Burials in the Saint Denis Basilica, France in the 6th-7th Century by Sophie Desrosiers and Antoinette Rast-Eicher (Textile Society of America)
[12] Textile Craftsmanship 1n the Norwegian Migration Period by Synnøve Thingnæs (in NESAT X)
[13] The poor people from Lønne Hede- Presentation of first century-graves with preserved textiles by Ida Demant (in NESAT IX)
[14] Some Finnish Archaeological Twill Weaves from the 11th to the 15th Century by Heini Kirjavainen and Jaana Riikonen (in NESAT IX)
[15] A heap of forgotten textiles from the 14th century Danish fortress, Boringholm by Maj Ringgaard and Else Østergård (in NESAT IX)
[16] A glimpse into Shakespeare’s world: late sixteenth-century textiles from the Rose playhouse, London by Frances Pritchard (in NESAT IX)
[17] Textile appearance and visual impression – Craft knowledge applied to archaeological textiles by Lena Hammarlund, Kathrine Vestergaard Pedersen (in NESAT IX)
[18] Early Medieval Costume in Switzerland by Antoinette Rast-Eicher (in NESAT VIII)
[19] The Romans in the West, 600 BC – AD 400 by John Peter Wild (in The Cambridge History of Western Textiles)
[20] The Eastern Mediterranean, 323 BC – AD 350 by John Peter Wild (in The Cambridge History of Western Textiles)
[21] Textile Pseudomorphs from a Merovingian Burial Ground at Harmignies, Belgium by Lisa Vanhaeke and Chris Verhecken-Lammens (in NESAT VII)
[22] Sixteenth-Century Textiles from Two Sites in Groningen, The Netherlands by Hanna Zimmerman (in NESAT VII)
[23] ‘The Apparel oft Proclaims the Man’: Late Sixteenth- and Early Seventeenth-Century Textiles from Bridge Street Upper, Dublin by Elizabeth Wincott Beckett (in NESAT VII)
[24] The Textile Collection from the 1988 Bessastaðir Excavation by Michèle Hayeur Smith (in Bessastaðarannsókn II Kirkjugarður og miðaldaminjar, uppgraftarsvæði 12-15)
[25] Gallo-Roman Period Archaeological Textiles found in France by Sophie Desrosiers and Alexandra Lorquin (in NESAT VI)
[26] 12th Century Twills from Bergen, Norway by Ellen Schjølberg (in NESAT VI)
[27] Medieval Textiles from Waterford City by Elizabeth Wincott Heckett (in NESAT V)
[28] Three Danish graves with textiles from the 3rd-4th centuries AD by Anne Hedeager Krag (in NESAT IV)
[29] New Finds of Medieval Textiles in the North of Novgorod Land by Natalia Khvoschchinskaja (in NESAT IV)
[30] Late Saxon Textiles from the City of London by Frances Pritchard
[31] Fabrics in Medieval Dress in Pomerania by Ann Rybarczyk

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Resampling the Linen

After mostly winding my linen warp, I’m rethinking my plans to do a 2/2 twill.  I’m thinking this yarn might look better as plain weave.  Also, with the twill overdress, another twill might be a bit much.

I wound a smaller sample warp, and have been weaving up new samples to test the look of the tabby.

This sample uses the same #10 Belgian linen yarn at 25 epi.  I also did a sample at 30 epi, but it was too heavy – more like canvas

I really do prefer it, so my plans have changed again.

Linen (Finished)

Linen (Finished)

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Underdress Calculations

Calculating the Warp

First, the calculations for take-up and shrinkage:

Width Length
On the loom 8″ 8.75″
Off the loom 7.5″ 8″
Take-up 6.25% 8.6%
After finishing 7″ 7.75″
Shrinkage 6.67% 3.125%

Next, determining how many warp ends I need:

Final planned width (“) 22″
+ Take-up (6.25%) + 1.375″
+ Shrinkage (6.67%) + 1.467″
= Width on the Loom = 25″
x epi (ends per inch) x 30
= Warp Ends =  750 ends
+/- Adjustment for pattern +3 (finish pattern repeat, add balance thread)
= Total Ends to Wind = 753

Then I need to determine the length of each end:

Final length (9 yards) 324″
+ Shrinkage (8.6%) 27.86″
+ Take-up (3.125%) 10.125″
+ Loom waste 36″
= Total warp length (rounded up) 399″

This gives us the amount of yarn needed for the warp:

Total Ends To Wind 753
x Length of each warp thread x 399″
= Total warp needed (rounded up) = 8346 yards

Calculating the Weft

This is a much simpler calculation.

Width on the Loom (“) 25″
x Beat (shots/inch) x 30 shots/inch
x Warp length for weaving (“) x 399″
= Total weft needed in yards (rounded up) = 8313 yards

The Final Totals

I need 16659 yards of linen, which rounds up to 6 cones of yarn.

At $16.75 a cone, my total cost for the yarn will be $100.50 CDN plus tax/shipping.  That boils down to $11.17 a yard (after finishing).

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